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Day Four Blog: Engineering Case Management Approaches

by Global Social Service Workforce Alliance
Read blogs from other days of Social Service Workforce Week

The process of case management is complex. It requires a well-engineered design that includes special attention to the social service workforce, or those ever-important tires that keep the car going, as referenced in the Social Service Workforce Week Day One blog.

Case management ideally helps to ensure the coordination of quality services to enable vulnerable children and families to find solutions to the challenges they face. It is often criticized for being an individualistic method of working in settings where a community approach is paramount. An effective case management approach is community-based and promotes meaningful engagement of community members, family members and children. At the same time, it is important to determine when and if case management is the best tool in the tool box for a social service worker to use or when other approaches, programs and services can be added or are better suited to meet the needs of vulnerable populations. 

The Global Social Service Workforce Alliance uses the power of a network to bring people together across organizations and countries to fill critical gaps in information and evidence and galvanize support for workforce strengthening initiatives that will ultimately better support families and communities to provide safe and nurturing environments for children. The Alliance has been reaching out to our members and partners to identify if there are gaps to be filled in coordination, development and dissemination of tools and resources related to case management. 

Case management word cloudIn a recent conference call on case management, 33 participants from 19 countries shared their wide-ranging definitions of case management. Given the breadth of programming, from coordinating services specific to children on the move or children affected by violence, for example, the range of definitions is not unexpected or unusual. There were a few definitions that seemed to capture many of the key elements emphasized by others. For example, Save the Children uses the definition: “the process of assisting an individual child (and their family) through direct support and referral to other needed services, and the activities that case workers, social workers or other project staff carry out in working with children and families in addressing their protection concerns.” The 4Children project uses the definition “the process of identifying, assessing, planning, referring, and tracking referrals, and monitoring the delivery of services in a timely, context-sensitive, individualized, and family-centered manner." Most definitions had some common key words, as featured in the word cloud.

Good case management is dependent on workers who have the right skills, abilities, ethics, values and behaviors to carry it out, along with the right type of supportive supervision or mentoring to help guide them through the many challenging aspects of providing quality case management. Many types of workers may be responsible for integrating case management approaches into their work, from social workers, child protection officers, para social workers, social welfare officers, children’s officers, community case managers, social auxiliary workers, social welfare assistants and so on. Many of these workers tend to receive in-service training and on-the-job mentoring and support, which is critical given the complex nature of the work. 

Many on that conference call noted interest in having increased access to tools and resources to plan training and provide ongoing support to those carrying out case management. Examples of resources discussed include standard operating procedures (SOPs) and guidelines, tools to monitor and evaluate a case management system, tools that support case worker performance or measure competencies, and/or tools that aid supervisors to provide supportive supervision. Many guidelines and resources already exist, for example:

  • The Case Management Toolkit:  A User’s Guide for Strengthening Case Management Services in Child Welfare was developed by USAID. The toolkit provides a framework for analyzing current systems, procedures and practices at both the case level and system level. It does not promote a specific model of case management; rather, it outlines the beneficial aspects, processes and strategies of case management that have shown improved outcomes for children and families. Good practice examples from seven countries in Europe and Eurasia are provided.
  • Interagency Guidelines for Case Management and Child Protection:  The role of case management in the protection of children is a guide for policy and program managers and case workers. It provides a general framework of agreed principles, considerations, steps and procedures for effective child protection case management developed by the Child Protection Working Group (CPWG)’s Case Management Taskforce in line with the Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action (CPMS).
  • Case Management Practice within Save the Children Child Protection Programs analyzes the practice of case management within Save the Children’s child protection programs. It explains the fundamental components of a good case management process, looks at the organization’s understanding and practice in case management, highlights examples of promising practice and identifies actions that should be taken to improve the quality of case management work for the benefit of children, families and communities.
  • The Child Protection Case Management Framework provides standard procedures, assessment and planning tools and guidance in the delivery of case management services. It represents the efforts of the Malawi Department of Social Welfare and Case Management Desk with support from UNICEF Malawi. It highlights core competencies, values, ethics and knowledge required of case managers.

There are a vast array of other tools and resources on case management in existence. Many are available on the Alliance resource database under the workforce theme of case management. At the same time, there may also be gaps in availability of tools such as those that help to assess worker competencies and point toward additional training or mentoring needs.  

Do you have more case management tools to share with your colleagues or are you interested in learning more about what is available? Are you interested in joining a new thematic interest group on case management to contribute to the exchange of information and development of knowledge on this topic? Let us know by posting a comment below or contacting us here.

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Building a Roadmap for the Workforce Strengthening Journey

by the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance

Read blogs from other days during Social Service Workforce Week

Going on a road trip without a map is a little bit like planning to provide social services without knowing much about the people providing those services. Just like you need to know the roads, distances and locations in order to drive to a new destination, decision makers need comprehensive data on the social service workforce in order to adequately address a population’s need for social services. And they need to pair this with stories and analysis of people’s travels along the way to have evidence of whether the map is functioning effectively.

Data on the workforce assists decision makers in understanding employment trends and workforce needs and in identifying the policies, budgets and training systems that need to be in place to produce a well-planned, developed and supported social service workforce. This data helps to build the roadmap for the journey that will need to be undertaken in order to have the right people with the right skills in the right place to meet current and future needs of vulnerable populations.

Once the roadmap has been charted and the journey begins, stories and analysis of the travel need to be assembled to ensure the map is accurate and useful, as well as if any changes need to be made. This is where building a growing evidence base comes in and forms an important part of refining the journey to a strengthened workforce.

The Global Social Service Workforce Alliance aims to bring together people across its membership, including policy makers, academics, donors and practitioners, to help identify needs for data collection and develop tools and resources that can inform decision-making on social service workforce investments and programming. Along those lines, we have embarked on several projects in recent years.

State of the Social Service Workforce Reports

The Alliance has compiled annual State of the Social Service Workforce Reports to highlight social service workforce strengthening data and approaches by examining and analyzing unique initiatives in particular countries and identifying common challenges and trends evident across locations.

  • 2016 Report CoverThe first State of the Social Service Workforce 2015 Report explores the diversity of the social service workforce within and across 15 countries in different regions of the world, recognizing the variety of functions, titles and types of education and training in both government and nongovernment work settings. It also reviews the availability of professional associations and councils to support the workforce. It takes a more quantitative approach to collating information on the workforce, combined with worker profiles and stories of change.

Evidence Review

While data is critical, evidence of what is working is also important. The Evidence Base on the Social Service Workforce: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Future Research Direction report reviews the current state of evidence on strengthening the social service workforce around the world. This report, along with The Evidence Matrix for the Social Service Workforce, are a culmination of a process undertaken by the Building Evidence for Social Service Workforce Strengthening Interest Group (BEIG) of the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance. They hoped that by organizing the current state of evidence, we can all better understand what data is available in what locations and what more is needed in order to improve the map of the way forward.

Having a good road map requires collecting the data points necessary to guide the future journey. It also allows you to look back and see how far you’ve come.  As Maury Mendenhall, USAID, wrote in her blog for our first annual SSW Week in 2014, “My hope is that in the very near future, we will be swimming in data. We will have the evidence we need to make a case for increasing investments in the workforce and workforce strengthening - and we will be able to target investments, to achieve the impact that we desire.” As we look at the work of our many members in more than 86 countries, we are all, indeed, a few steps further on that journey.

Get Involved

In what ways do you think data and evidence could best inform workforce strengthening initiatives? What data and evidence about workforce strengthening can you add to the evidence matrix?

  • Add your feedback by posting on the discussion board or in the comment box below. Share your reports or research with others by sending it here.  
  • Tweet to show your support for the social service workforce. Some sample tweets you can use today are:
    • It’s a long journey to strengthen the social service workforce. We need a good map. #workforce2030 #SSWWeek
    • Improved evidence of what works = an improved social service workforce. #SSWWeek
Anonymous's picture

Navigating Speed Bumps Ahead: Principles and competencies that drive the para professional workforce

by Global Social Service Workforce Alliance

Read blogs from other days during Social Service Workforce Week

There can be many bumps in the road if volunteer or paid workers and employers don’t have a clear set of guiding principles as well as a specific set of skills, knowledge and behaviors to move the work along. These skill sets, or competencies, may be adapted within social service programs to ensure that children and other vulnerable groups get the services and support they need.

Competency frameworks can provide a way to navigate the roadmap of a multi-faceted workforce comprised of many types of workers, including the important role of para professionals, and help to identify the smoothest potential path ahead. For each type of worker, the competency framework can provide a menu of options or a structure from which to both design and fine tune programs and worker training and development. Competency frameworks can:

  • provide a clearer picture of expected actions, behaviors and functions
  • aid recruitment by helping to define the skills and behaviors needed for the job
  • shape training and education programs
  • enhance performance management and development, providing a basis to monitor and evaluate work and form constructive feedback as part of supervision
  • highlight steps for career progression

After initially forming in September 2013, the Alliance Interest Group on Para Professionals identified the need for a competency framework for para professionals. These frameworks help to outline the functions and competencies of para professionals and can be used to provide program guidance, accountability and ultimately inform both training and supervision. They are aimed to be broad enough so that specific countries or programs could adapt them to be contextually and culturally relevant. 

After many drafts and wide input, development of the first full draft of guiding principles and two sets of competencies was developed in March 2015. The first is a set of generic competencies for para professional social service workers that may be useful in areas where specific professional groups are not present. In addition, a more specific set of competencies geared to Child and Youth Care Workers (CYCW) included competencies for both basic level and more advanced workers. These frameworks are a menu of competencies to be selected as appropriate to each program.

The group discussed how best to validate or test these two sets of competencies. The generic and CYCW competency frameworks were reviewed with local para professionals and supervisors in Kenya and Uganda in June and July of 2015. In addition, during their development, the competencies were discussed and reviewed by conference audiences in the Philippines through a session entitled Developing Community Social Service Workers: The Role of Para Professionals and the Work of the Alliance Interest Group on Para Professionals in partnership with the Philippines-based Child Protection Network and in South Africa through a live webcast entitled Development of the Child and Youth Care Work Profession and held in collaboration with the National Association of Child Care Workers (NACCW).

In September, the first edition of “Para Professionals in the Social Service Workforce: Guiding Principles, Functions and Competencies” was completed and circulated.

Since then, the group has been working on developing functions and competencies specific to two new groups of para professionals – para social workers (PSW) and para professional community development workers (CDW). It should be noted that the names used for these workers vary from country to country. Validation exercises will take place for each set.

  • Validation of PSW competencies took place last week in DRC, led by 4Children
  • Validation of CDW competencies will take place in Ethiopia with assistance from USAID and the Ethiopian Society of Sociologists, Social Workers and Anthropologists (ESSWA).

During the validation exercise in DRC, workers provided valuable feedback on how to apply the competency framework and improve training. One PSW said, “Ce serait bien d'avoir une formation holistique avant le recrutement et plusieurs autres formations en cours d’emploi. [It would be good to foresee a comprehensive pre-service training of PSWs, and then tailored on-the-job training to address any specific needs.]”training

The group has also been gathering stories of ways that the competency framework has been used so far.

One example is the Care and Courage: Using Isibindi to Strengthen Child Protection in Zambia project. UNHCR entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with NACCWto replicate the Isibindi model in a custom-designed model for refugee children in Zambia at the Meheba Refugee Camp. This project was designed to train refugees in the Meheba camp as entry-level CYCWs to provide basic care and protection to children in the camps.

Other ways our network has used the principles and functions and competencies are listed below:

  • UNICEF West Africa Regional Office translated the document for a conference of 11 French-speaking West African countries in Benin, West Africa in April to use as a model to develop training guidelines for para professionals.
  • The Child and Youth Care Work competencies have been used to realign the Basic Qualification in Child Care (BQCC) training in South Africa, which is a training that is a part of the minimum standards of child care and required for all those working with children.
  • Due to their use in French-speaking countries in West Africa and the validation exercise in DRC, the full document has been translated into French, with support from Translators without Borders and International Social Services.
  • Since they were released in September, there have been 400 downloads of the Guidelines and Competencies documents from the Alliance website.

Send Your Feedback
How are you using the para professional guidelines or competency framework in your work? If you have had experience using the first edition document in any way, please let us know by posting your responses to our discussion board. The interest group also values your feedback on ways the framework can be strengthened, particularly before the final edition later this year. Add your feedback in the comment box below!

(Image courtesy of NACCW)

Anonymous's picture

Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Full speed ahead to a stronger social service workforce

by Global Social Service Workforce Alliance

Read blogs from other days during Social Service Workforce Week

This week, during the third annual Social Service Workforce Week, we’ll review how the social service workforce is a vital component of making the social service system not only function but generate the best possible outcomes for vulnerable children and families. The social service workforce is the vital group of competent, caring workers who provide desperately needed services to the most vulnerable. They are the heart and the brains of a system responsible for supporting families and reducing violence against children.

To strengthen the social service workforce, it is necessary to look at the workforce within a systems context. The workforce is a micro-system nested within the larger system that requires its own set of interventions and support. At the same time, the workforce plays a key role at the macro, mezzo and micro levels and acts as the ever-important glue between the various components of the system, including legislative and policy environments, national institutions and structures, community and family support systems, financing and budgeting systems, programs and interventions. Their role in ensuring smooth linkages, collaboration and coordination between and among system components strengthens the system as a whole.

car without wheelsWhen Jini Roby spoke at the Alliance’s 2nd Annual Symposium in June 2015, she compared the workforce to the tires on a car. While you can have the fanciest, most expensive engine and make of car, if you don’t have wheels, you will go nowhere. You also need to have the right number of wheels, with the right tire requirements for the vehicle and the right amount of air and ensure that they are well-maintained. Yet, if the garage and the mechanics you rely on are not competent and well trained and supported, you can end up with tire problems that make it impossible to drive that wonderful car. Similarly, without investing in filling open positions, providing quality training and retaining workers by providing supportive supervision and high quality work environments, the social service system as a whole will be riding on deflated tires.

Within the social service workforce, there are many cadres that must work in synergy. Particularly at the national and global level, it is important to come together for a unified, coherent vision of strengthening the workforce in order to strengthen the entire social service system. Collaboration is vital. If the front tires want to go forward and the back tires want to go backward, we’ll be stuck in the same place. All four tires are dependent on each other, just as all cadres of the social service workforce rely on each other. By working together, our advocacy efforts and investments will help us to go full speed ahead. Our blog on Friday will highlight how and why we must be better self-advocates.

The car’s many other micro-systems must also be in good working order to move the car forward. Without making investments in routine maintenance, one part breaks and the whole car is no longer drivable.

Similarly, cars operate most effectively when in alignment with other dynamic components of transportation systems. The social service workforce operates within a social service system that consistently affects and is effected by developments in health, justice, education, gender, community development, immigration, labor and humanitarian sectors to name a few. With committed investments, however, we can grow and move forward, or to build on the analogy, ensure we have the sleekest design and newest technological advances that are maintained and work in coordination in all future year’s models.

When it comes to ensuring that our systems work for children and families, we must all commit to being drivers and not simply passengers in the car. When all parts work together, including the very important tires, we’ll reach our destination of strong, healthy families in a world truly supportive of children.

Discussion Question
Why do you think the social service workforce is a vital component of making the social service system function and generate the best outcomes for vulnerable children and families? I invite you to share promising practices as well as challenges you’ve faced on our discussion board.

Get Involved- Social Service Workforce Week 2016
Today kicks off the week’s celebration of social service workers. Each day will be launched with an e-mail to our members and mailing list and include a blog, links and sample tweets. Tomorrow, on Day Two, we will highlight the development of competency frameworks for community workers who help to prevent and address violence against children. On Day Three, we will feature the importance of data and evidence to build a strong case for workforce strengthening. Day Four will focus on case management approaches and ways groups are strengthening the workforce to better support families. Friday will focus on ways that we can all be better advocates for the workforce.

We encourage you to get involved through the following methods:

  • Become a member
  • Share promising practices as well as challenges you’ve faced on our discussion board
  • Join the conversation this week on Twitter! Use #SSWWeek, tweet the messages below or tweet us @SSWAlliance to tell us about your programs. 
  • Post a message on our Facebook page on your Facebook page using the message below.
  • Review the range of documents on the Alliance resource database
  • Email us your recent reports or documents with a short description to add them to the resource library and disseminate them to this network.
  • Share the daily blogs and emails with your network.

Drafted Social Media Posts
Below are some social media posts you can share on your Twitter and Facebook pages to help promote today’s blog and Social Service Workforce Week:

  • A strong #socialservices system requires a strong workforce. Join us & @SSWAlliance in celebrating #SSWWeek. /social-service-workforce-week
  • Social service workers are the intervention to #ENDViolence against children! #childprotection #SSWWeek /social-service-workforce-week
  • Today @SSWAlliance launches Social Service Workforce Week #SSWWeek. Social service workers are the tires that make the social service system go! These competent, caring workers provide desperately needed services to the most vulnerable people, including strengthening families & reducing violence against children. Read how in today’s blog:

Thank you for joining us this week as we celebrate the work of those who have dedicated their lives to improving the lives of others. We look forward to continuing to exchange promising practices and innovative ideas in the shared spirit of strengthening the social service workforce.

Denise Phelps's picture

Utilizing Mobile Technology to Strengthen Social Service Delivery

By Denise Phelps and the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance

Graphic depiction of % of social workers who think mobile technology would help them in their jobsAn estimated 90% of people around the globe own a mobile phone. Experts predict that there will begin to be a shift toward global smartphone ownership, and as a result, developing nations will invest less in landline infrastructure and instead focus on broadband internet access. Despite this shift, most social workers and others in the social service workforce still do not have access to data in the field. As most practitioners spend their time away from an office or computer, making visits, this is problematic. A recent study in the US found that an overwhelming majority of social workers surveyed thought that mobile technology would help them do their jobs better.

The high rates of mobile phone ownership combined with the predicted increase in smart phone ownership among people in emerging markets has contributed to an increase in projects utilizing mobiles for health (mhealth). Over the last several years, the health and development sectors have been using mobile phones as a tool to support patient well-being, such as helping to diagnose patients, providing remote education to community health workers, monitoring worker performance, and providing patients with important health information and reminders.

While many of these same tools can be utilized in the social services field, they are currently more predominantly used in the U.S. and Western countries and on a much smaller scale than in the health field. The growing importance of technology use within the field is exemplified by the U.S. National Association of Social Work’s creation of standards on ethical use. 

It is important to understand how new technology can improve services provided by the workforce as well as how it can make the job easier.

Framework for planning, developing and supporting the workforceThe mhealth movement has shown that there are a variety of ways that both the workforce and its constituents can benefit from the adoption of new mobile technologies. The Alliance’s State of the Social Service Workforce 2016 Report reviews progress over the last five years toward planning, developing and supporting the workforce.


Available, accurate data about both the workforce and the people you are trying to serve is a key part of planning. The lack of real-time data creates gaps in available evidence to make data-based decisions toward strengthening the workforce. The health sector has recently increased emphasis on developing and implementing human resource management systems and linking them to various tools for workers. Open Source Human Resource Information Solutions is one of the platforms being utilized, and some countries, including Malawi and Tanzania, are working on integrating information about the social service workforce into these platforms.


The University of Buffalo in New York, USA, developed an app for social workers that helps keep workers up-to-date on advancements in the field on everything from substance abuse to mental health services. They focus on evidence-based and promising practices that are most relevant in the field.

Ventura County, California, has developed a solution that uses a variety of software to provide child welfare workers with mobile technology to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness and economy of carrying out their tasks.


An SMS text-based data entry system was successfully piloted in Tanzania to help support para-social workers’ efforts to document their work with orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Para-social workers were able to submit data via text that was automatically entered into the Department of Social Welfare’s OVC database.

Care Community Hub is an mHealth program in Ghana that combines virtual peer-to-peer support with improved connectedness in order to improve motivation and well-being for frontline health workers involved in maternal, newborn and child health service delivery.​ The program aims to increase data collection and reporting through additional support to workers.

Social service workers around the globe can benefit from mobile programs, which can also be an efficient way to reach currently underserved populations who typically reside in remote areas while increasing real-time data.

How are you using mobile technology to strengthen your work? Join the discussion to share your ideas and successful approaches.

Romola Thumbadoo's picture

Social Service Workers Celebrate International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous people are remarkably resilient and are claiming their rightful place on the global stage; further, they have much to offer workers and learners in the social services. 

On August 9, International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples will be celebrated with a focus on the right to education. As the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) related to Education and Intergenerational Transmission states, “Indigenous peoples have the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning.” The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was passed on September 13, 2007, by an overwhelming majority of the United Nations General Assembly. The UNDRIP ensures that indigenous peoples' rights to cultural integrity, education, health, and political participation are protected.

According to United Nations reports, indigenous peoples are recognized as being among the world’s most vulnerable, disadvantaged and marginalized peoples. Spread across the some 90 countries, they number roughly more than 370 million. While they constitute approximately five percent of the world’s population, indigenous peoples make up 15 percent of the world’s poor and one-third of the world’s extremely poor.

One example of a group promoting the rights of indigenous peoples is the Circle of All Nations, an informal, unfunded, global eco-community dedicated to supporting indigenous wisdom, respect of Mother Earth, racial harmony and peace building, and social justice. Circle of All Nations has explored the value of traditional Indigenous approaches to child care, racial harmony and justice issues, in order to facilitate reclamation, increasingly mindful that these strategies might not only be critically important to indigenous peoples, but also to others. Indigenous restorative practices such as talking, healing and sentencing circles, can also strengthen an increasingly dehumanized criminal justice system.

Indigenous Circle of Courage principles, conceptualized in the form of a Medicine Wheel grounded on the ideas of belonging, mastery, independence and generosity, inform multiple aspects of the Isibindi Safe Parks child and youth care work of the National Association of Child Care Workers (NACCW) in South Africa.

Many now realize that it is critically important and mutually beneficial for meaningful bridges to be built with indigenous peoples. Education at multiple levels, particularly for social service workers, can contribute to such a process. Increasingly but still too infrequently, social service workforce training is being developed by and with indigenous peoples.

For more information please take a look at:

by Romola Thumbadoo, Circle of All Nations, Canada

Anonymous's picture

Atelier de réflexion régionale sur les compétences-clés et le renforcement de la ressource humaine pour la protection de l’enfance en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre (12-15 Avril 2016)

Image of group working in ContonuL’atelier de réflexion régionale sur les compétences-clés et le renforcement de la ressource humaine pour la protection de l’enfance en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre, organisé par UNICEF, Terre des Hommes, le Bureau International des Droits des Enfants et le Service Social International (SSI), s’est déroulé du 12 au 15 Avril 2016 à Cotonou. Ici est le ressource: Cadre Commun des Compétences des Para Professionnels.

L’atelier a réuni durant 4 jours 37 participant(e)s de 8 pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre provenant d’institutions ministérielles, d’universités et d’écoles de formation au travail social, d’organisations de la société civile et des organisations partenaires au projet.

Suite aux recommandations de l’étude cartographique des offres de formation en travail social menée en 2014 par le CPC Learning Network. Ont convenu de porter au nom du Groupe Régional sur la Protection de l’Enfance (GRPE) une initiative inter-agence sur le renforcement du travail social dans la région.

Dans le cadre de ce projet conjoint entre SSI, Tdh, l’IBCR et l’UNICEF, une première rencontre s’est tenue à Dakar en décembre 2014 et a vu la participation de neuf écoles/universités de la région provenant de sept pays (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Bénin, Burkina Faso, Guinée-Bissau, Sénégal et Mauritanie).

Le deuxième atelier d’Avril 2016 s’inscrit dans la suite de cette dynamique régionale. Riche en discussion, échanges, débats et travaux de groupes qui ont ponctué la semaine, l’atelier de réflexion régionale a engagé une réflexion et des discussions sur la compréhension et la collaboration entre les différents acteurs sociaux et sur le développement de compétences-clés pour le renforcement de la ressource humaine pour la protection de l’enfance en Afrique de l’Ouest et du centre.

Dans un premier temps, l’atelier a permis, à l’échelle régionale, de partager les points essentiels issus des consultations nationales sur les rôles, les responsabilités et les compétences-clés des travailleurs sociaux professionnels de même que les para-professionnels, notamment celles et ceux œuvrant pour la protection de l’enfance, menées depuis décembre 2014 au Bénin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Mali, Mauritanie, Togo, Ghana, Tchad et République Démocratique du Congo.

Sur la base des résultats de ces consultations et en partant du constat qu’il existe une variété d’acteurs sociaux de protection de l’enfance. Les participant(e)s ont ensuite réfléchi à la définition des caractéristiques des différents groupes d’acteurs sociaux de la protection de l’enfance dans différents contextes d’intervention. Plus précisément, il s’est agi d’adopter un vocabulaire commun. Sur la base de ces réflexions, un premier document a été produit qui clarifie les différents groupes clés d’acteurs de la protection de l’enfance en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre.

Sur la base de ces exemples et en réfléchissant à leur pratique quotidienne et à ce qui peut fonctionner ou non en terme de collaboration, les participant(e)s ont établi des propositions de collaboration et de coordination entre les groupes clés d'acteurs du travail social pour la protection de l'enfant dans des contextes urbain et rural en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre. L’idée étant de travailler sur les court, moyen et long termes et d’établir des recommandations s’adressant à tous les acteurs, y compris les acteurs communautaires, pour renforcer leur collaboration et parvenir à une protection de l’enfance efficace, basée sur le rôle, l’expérience et les connaissances de chaque acteur.

Dans ce cadre, un document a été finalisé pour formuler des pistes de collaboration, coordination et synergie renforcées entre les groupes-clés d’acteurs du travail social pour la protection de l’enfance.    

L’atelier a également permis d’arriver à une première identification des grands domaines et du contenu d’un cadre de compétences-clés pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre applicable par chacun. En effet, le constat a été partagé par tous les participants qu’il y a un vide dans la région par rapport à l’existence d’un cadre commun de compétences-clés. Ainsi, l’existence d’un cadre commun de compétences-clés, qui pourra ensuite être contextualisé selon le pays, permettra le renforcement des capacités des acteurs sociaux de la protection de l’enfance.

Dans un premier temps les réflexions ont porté sur les définitions des notions de compétences-clés, de compétences et de cadre de compétences-clés. Pour exemple, l’ordre de Québec définit la notion de compétence-clé comme telle : « La capacité démontrée par un individu d’accomplir une activité, une tâche ou un acte professionnel. Deux catégories : professionnelle et personnelle » (L’Ordre de Quebec).

Après une lecture de deux exemples de cadre de compétences-clés dont celui pour les paras professionnels de la Social Service Workforce Alliance, les participants ont listé leurs activités et tâches quotidiennes pour ensuite déterminer et catégoriser les compétences nécessaires à ces activités.

Cette réflexion a permis d’établir une proposition d’un référentiel de compétences-clés fondamentales des acteurs sociaux de la protection de l’enfance en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre.

Enfin, le développement du plan d’action régional et, au niveau national, des plans d’actions par pays, fournit une direction à prendre pour les années à venir afin de prolonger la dynamique régionale initiée par les deux ateliers de réflexion régionale de Décembre 2014 et Avril 2016.

Anonymous's picture

Building the Evidence Base for Social Service Workforce Strengthening

by Jini Roby

There is a crisis of a shortage of social services workers around the globe. Pressing needs of child protection, social protection and family strengthening require a variety of trained workers; yet, many low- and middle-income countries are struggling to recruit, train and retain them in a sustainable way. Since the workforce serves as the critical bridge to services and resources for vulnerable children and families, strengthening the workforce has emerged as a global priority issue. How can we effectively plan, develop, deploy and maintain an effective social service workforce? What evidence is there that can support this effort? This was the topic of the first-ever social service workforce evidence review convened by the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance Building Evidence for Social Service Workforce Strengthening Interest Group on June 3 in Washington, D.C. Download the full report and the evidence matrix.

The evidence forum included multi-disciplinary experts to review the draft report of the current state of evidence on social service workforce strengthening around the world. The goal of the report is to identify the most critical gaps in evidence and priority research needs pertinent to strengthening the workforce.

This process was initiated by creating an evidence matrix using key words and accessing multiple data libraries and search engines to explore academic and grey literature. Relevance was determined by the approximation of the work to the Framework for Strengthening the Social Service Workforce, adopted by the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance. The Framework envisages strengthening the workforce through coordinated and integrated processes of planning, developing, and supporting the workforce. Of the thousands of articles and books found, only those considered the most relevant were added to the matrix.

Although there is an increasing interest in best practice models in these areas, the evidence is scattered, and tends to be anecdotal, program-specific, or observational in nature. These pieces of information are helpful since in most development efforts, workforce building is location specific and measured at the program level. However, there is also a need to organize the current state of information to better understand what we know, as well as what we don’t know, about what workforce strengthening strategies work, what doesn’t work, and the impact of workforce strengthening on clients.

Overall, the available evidence on efforts to strengthen the social service workforce is weak. Yet of the pertinent studies, there are some methodologically robust studies coming out of high-income countries such as the U.S. and UK. Evidence from the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is emerging, and tends to be limited to technical reports and situational analyses that are country- or region-specific. Still, these pieces of information provide a much needed sense for what is happening on the ground in some regions and suggest many helpful ideas for further exploration regarding the workforce. In addition, research in allied fields, such as health, suggests potential research methodologies and applications for the social service workforce as well as a foundation for anticipating some issues that have not yet emerged as discussion topics in the field.

The evidence review meeting brought together a large variety of experts to help analyze the preliminary findings. The participants were broken into three groups and were tasked with analyzing and determining the utility of the existing evidence base. They also identified high priority areas in need of further research and next steps needed to create a practical and useful research agenda. The full group then reconvened to discuss their findings and vote on what they saw as the most important areas to tackle first.

The summary of available information combined with the insights from experts at the working group meeting has been combined into an outcomes paper that provides some direction and suggestions for priority research areas to build the evidence base for social service workforce strengthening. We invite your input on these suggestions from the full report and on the evidence matrix by posting a comment here, initiating a discussion on the discussion board (note you must be a member to post comments or discussion topics) or emailing the Alliance.

Amy Bess's picture

Alliance Takes Steps toward Growth, Independence

The Global Social Service Workforce Alliance and IntraHealth International are proud to announce that the Tides Center will become the new host and fiscal sponsorImage of Glabal Alliance and Tides Merger of the Alliance effective July 15, 2016.

The Alliance is an influential and effective advocate for social service workers and systems around the world. It strives for a world where a well-planned, trained and supported social service workforce helps those in need improve their lives. The Alliance works with individuals and organizations at the local, regional and international levels to strengthen the social service workforce.

With participation and support from a broad range of participating organizations and a strong and diverse steering committee, the Alliance has grown to include more than 900 members representing 87 countries. IntraHealth has acted as host and fiscal sponsor to the Alliance since its launch three years ago. Both entities are committed to improving the health and well-being of vulnerable populations through stronger workforces.

The new host represents a shift toward greater independence for the Alliance. The Tides Center is specifically designed to act as a fiscal sponsor to networks and start-up groups similar to the Alliance. It has experience supporting global networks, works with a vast array of donors and has highly developed fiscal sponsorship support structures. The Tides Center is positioned to help the Alliance achieve its goals of continued growth and organizational independence. The Alliance looks forward to increased partnerships, new members and expanding projects.

The Alliance is thankful to its 900 members for their efforts to strengthen the provision of social services in their countries and to raise awareness of the important role social service workers play in their communities. Social service workers are critical to creating protective environments for healthy development and well-being by alleviating poverty; reducing discrimination; facilitating access to essential services; promoting social justice; and preventing and responding to violence, abuse, exploitation, neglect and family separation.

Collaboration with IntraHealth will remain important to the work of the Alliance. We will continue to work together to build the capacity of social service workers and systematically link social and health services. IntraHealth and the Alliance will continue to work together under the 4Children Project, led by Catholic Relief Services and funded by the United Stated Agency for International Development through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to improve the health and well-being of orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV, AIDS and other adversities.

Please direct any queries to: Amy Bess, Director, Global Social Service Workforce Alliance,


Denise Phelps's picture

On the International Day of Families, Recognizing the Importance of Families in Zambia and Beyond

In 1993, a UN resolution created the International Day of Families “realizing that families, as basic units of social life, are major agents of sustainable development at all levels of society and that their contribution to that process is crucial for its success.”  International Day of Families was introduced as a way to celebrate the importance of the family to the international community.  The theme for 2016 is families, healthy lives and a sustainable future,” recognizing the way in which families contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Families serve a vital role in socializing, educating and caring for children, but in many places around the world families have experienced extreme hardships over the last century.  Problems ranging from civil wars to the rise of HIV/AIDS have overburdened family and community support structures.  Children are taken to residential care institutions, including orphanages and children’s homes, often because their parents do not have access to adequate social services to help them cope with the hardships facing them.  Evidence indicates that children outside of family care are at increased risk of being exposed to abuse, neglect and exploitation. 

Strengthening family-based care can help to prevent unnecessary separation of children from their families.  For children already in residential care, deinstitutionalization and a careful process of reintegration back into family-based care that includes community-based support will help children return to a safe and protective home environment.    

Many countries are undergoing care reform processes and are shifting away from institutionalization of childcare. For example, last week in Zambia, the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance took part in organizing a national consultation on care reform led by the Government of Zambia along with many other partners including the Better Care Network, GHR Foundation, USAID, UNICEF, Save the Children and other NGOs. The consultation aimed to jointly identify national priorities for action in order to accelerate child care reform in Zambia. The main focus areas and questions of the consultation were:

  • What evidence do we have about child care reform? And how can we build and share the evidence base?  
  • How can we build capacity for family strengthening and alternative care?
  • How can we strengthen advocacy efforts to accelerate the child care reform process?

A day was set aside to focus on issues specific to the social service workforce, without whom child care reform cannot be achieved. Presentations about the workforce were provided by Janestic Twikirize, Makerere University, on behalf of the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance; Barnabas Mwansa, Zambia Rising; Robert Sihubwa, Zambian Association of Childcare Workers; and Benson Chisanga, University of Zambia, Department of Social Development Studies. 

The consultation culminated in a Call to Action that recognized policies currently in place to support children and families, but also urged government, civil society and all stakeholders working with children to support the implementation of a set of strategic actions to accelerate child care reform in Zambia.

The International Day of Families offers the opportunity to pause and consider the central importance of families to the well-being of communities and society.  At the Global Social Service Workforce Alliance, we also celebrate the many, many workers who have dedicated their lives to supporting and strengthening families.